During the period 1959 - 1991, territorial administrative borders were created, wells were constructed and animal husbandry was collectivized. This limited free migration and enabled grazing of animals where previously lack of available water prevented it and salt was distributed to satisfy the needs of the animals. One disadvantage was the over-grazing of land and complete devastation of the vegetation around the wells.
Nomads make four main migrations between the four seasonal pasture areas and many other migrations within those seasons. Depending on the differences of geographical zones, nowadays a nomadic family will move on average 10 times a year, although in cases of emergency they can move up to 30 times per year.
Pastures around a new site are divided up and used separately according to animal type. Nomads use the most distant pastures for horses because horses form quite stable groups under the leading stallion and are unlikely to run away from the group. This also offers protection against attack by wolves. When in danger the mares form a circle with their fronts facing inward, with the foals in the centre and the stallion on the outside, a distribution that challenges any agressor. Nomads who own only a small number of horses let theirs join with their neighbours' horses.
A popular method of horse keeping is the individual migration where a herdsman takes his horses and a tent to distant pastures whilst the rest of the family stay with the other animals who are considered not strong enough to make a long migration. This happens in all four seasons, and in times of scarce food reserves e.g. drought or heavy snowfall, they may have to cover long distances.
More information about breeding, horse racing and training, the wild horse and different uses of horses can be found in Bold's book, ISBN: 978-9979-72-243-4